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Entries in Lompoc (1)

Thursday
Apr012010

Ball, Daniel (c 1827- ), Ball, John (c1825- ) & Nobles (nee Ball), Sarah (c1823- ) NEW WORLD EMIGRANTS

Ball, Daniel, (c1827 - ), Ball, John (c1825 - ) and Nobles (nee Ball), Sarah (c1823 - )

 

Daniel Ball and Phebe Whittering were married on 7thAugust 1817 in Ringstead Parish Church. Daniel was a shepherd and over the next twenty years they produced their own flock of eleven children. It seems an ordinary, sedentary family welded to the country side of its birth but, as in the nursery rhyme, many of the sheep were lost, and it seems that only the youngest, Elisha, came home with his tale to tell.

 

Of George the eldest, I have, as yet found no sign and Elizabeth, the second child was born in 1820 and I believe died in 1840. John, the second oldest boy had been born in 1825 and died just one year later. Ann, the second oldest girl survived and married George Mays and stayed in the village Then followed Sarah, Daniel and  a second John and it seemed that these formed their own group and broke the mould of a settled pastoral family and it is their story that we will be trying to piece together here.

 It is worth remembering that, of the younger siblings, James born in about 1831 married Emma Storks and stayed locally and Samuel born in 1836 was buried aged just 7 on November 9th 1843 but that Thomas and Elisha whose stories we have also told left the nest before 1871, one to join the army and the other to seek his fortune in the New World and come back disappointed.

                 Chart to show where the three siblings sat in family tree

                                                 Daniel Ball …………………..Phebe Whitteringl

     -----------------------------------------------------l--------------------------------------------------------------

     l                      l                            I                      l                 l                l              l                 l                   l                  l                     l

George       Elizabeth           Anne           John       l             l                l         James    Thomas      Samuel      Elisha

b 1818-?   b 1820-40            b 1822      1825-6     l             l                l         b1831      b 1834         1836-43        b 1836

                                                                                    Sarah     Daniel      John

                                                                                      b 1827          b 1827/8          b 1830 

              All birth dates are approximate (and vary through the Censuses in most cases).

     I have noted the dates of those who died very early and highlighted Thomas and Elisha

                               who also left the area (although Elisha returned)

Of all Daniel and Phoebe’s children, by 1861, only Ann (now Mays) and James were still alive and living locally. Why this scattering of the family? We can only speculate but we do know that in 1839 Ringstead was “Enclosed”. It was a very late Parliamentary Enclosure but it had much the same effect as the earlier ones. Small farmers were bought out, cottagers and those with rights on the common land lost them. The labourers lost the perks of the crops, the grazing and firewood that were part of their lives and became totally dependant on paid employment. Mechanisation also reduced the need for labourers and the new industrial towns and cities drew them in.

High prices and low wages were bringing many families to the breadline and the New World, a place of opportunity and goldmines, with cheap passages advertised in the local papers must have been an exciting if fearful prospect.

We know that, in the 1851 Census, Daniel and Phoebe are living in Ringstead with their children; Daniel, the son, is 22 and an agricultural labourer; Mary (24) is Daniel’s new wife and a lacemaker; John (21) is an under gardener; Thomas (17), an agricultural labourer and Elisha, the youngest, is a scholar. We also know that Sarah (26) has married Thomas Nobles and is also living in Ringstead. She is an “Ag Lab’s wife” with her daughter Phoebe who is two years old. Thomas is away, possibly with his parents in Pilton.

By 1861 only Elisha is living with his parents and, apart from those we have mentioned, the others are nowhere to be found in England

On 28th June 1852 the packet-ship Jacob A Westervelt arrived in New York from Liverpool. It had been built in 1849 and was a wooden hulled sailing ship named after its builder. It was part of the American Black Star Line and had first put into Liverpool on 10thJanuary 1850. She was a large three-decker, able to take 900 passengers, and was well equipped with a surgeon’s room, bath rooms and separate hospitals for men and women. We know that in 1852 it did its fastest run from New York to Liverpool of 14 days 12 hours but that was with the prevailing westerly winds. Journeys to the United States could be much longer.

The sailing packets, unlike most passenger ships, ran to a timetable, whatever the weather, and had three, rather than the usual two, crossings a year. These fast times, in sailing terms, meant that as much sail as possible was maintained in all weathers. This did mean that the crossings could be rough and fraught with danger

In the previous year, on 31stMay 1851, the ship, with 800 passengers on board, bound for New York, grounded on the Old South Shoal within sight of Sankaty,(where a lighthouse had begun operation just a year earlier) in Nantucket. Luckily, the steamboat Massachusetts managed to put a pilot on board and she was guided to safety. In the following year, in December 1853, the Jacob A Westervelt foundered on the coast of Newfoundland but all 700 passengers survived. Later, on 12th April 1860, the New York Times reported on a fire, which had happened the day before on the ship while it was in the harbour, which it thought had probably destroyed it. In fact, it appears that in 1862 it was sold to the Black Bull Line and renamed Southern Empire and used on the long England to Australia emigrant route

Incidentally, it reveals something of the times, both the fear of new technology and the violence of the new cities that in this report the New York Times tells of one of the members of a fire service going to the blazing ship.

A brutal assault was made upon JOHN ROSS, a member of Manhattan Company No. 8 and a clerk in the General Post Office, who was running through Chatham-street to overtake his Company. When near the corner of Pearl street, his uniform attracted the attention of a gang of “Dead Rabbits”, who are hangars-on of an Engine Company who entertain sentiments of envy toward the steam-engines and one of the scoundrels dealt him a blow from behind with a heavy club, that laid him prostate on the walk…

Those that disembarked from that 1852 voyage were, therefore, lucky that they had arrived without serious incident. It still would have been an unpleasant and frightening journey for passengers, many of whom had probably not seen the sea before they reached Liverpool. There were conmen in Liverpool,  known as the Forty Thieve, who preyed particularly on the Irish families that were escaping from the “Famine”. They worked for crooked shopkeepers, money changers (for dollars) and landlords who tried to take what little money the emigrants had. The vast exodus of the Irish famine victims was beginning to wane and regulation was starting to improve the conditions for the waiting emigrants as well as the resident population. Liverpool still had vast slums and cholera and typhus were rife. The emigrants had to keep their wits about them if they were not to lose their health and their money before they embarked on their journey.

Even the boarding of the ship could be a frightening experience for some captains made sure the cargo was stored and the cabin passengers installed before they allowed the steerage passengers on board. The captain would also, by then, be making ready to cast off and there was oten a mad scramble up the gangplank by the poor passengers, carrying their few boxes and possessions. Some did “miss the boat” and some were drowned in the dock.

The crossing was planned to take between sixteen and thirty days according to the weather conditions. The Saloon or First Cabin of the Jacob A. Westervelt was lined with satinwood, zebrawood and rosewood, with brilliant pier-glasses, and painted white and gold> These fortunate few would be provided with meals and all services. The steerage passengers, on the other hand, were only provided with “coals, water and bread stuff” for their £5 ticket. They were crammed together in the lower decks with fourteen square feet of space allowed per passenger (half that for children and nothing for infants). They had to cook their own meals in the few places provided on deck and generally fend for themselves. The New York Daily Times of 13 December 1891, comparing the new steamships with the old sail packets, describes the accommodation:

The steerage occupied the whole of the 'tween decks. Single and double and upper and lower berths were arranged all around the sides of the ship. As far as possible families were placed together and the women passengers given all the privacy possible in the limited space available. The steerage was reached by ladders at the fore and main hatches which were always open except in bad weather, and ventilators through the deck and a windsail or two {a sail designed to funnel  air to the lower decks} furnished the fresh air of the steerage. Should weather become stormy and the sea heavy the hatches were closed and the poor emigrant had to make the best of his surroundings until the weather moderated.

It was a harsh world where crew and stowaways could be flogged and beaten but certainly the Irish passengers were known to try to make the best of it, and help the time to pass, with music and dancing.

When they finally arrived the emigrants would have looked at the new city with awe and, one would guess, with fear. It too had people trying to rob and cheat them but, by 1848, the State of New York had established immigrant reception centres and licensed boarding houses and in 1852 Emigrants’ Homes made from converted warehouses, were offering reasonable, clean temporary accommodation.

Among the passengers shuffling off that ship in June 1852 were a group of young country men and women who were listed briefly on the Passenger List. (it is not clear to whom the”Labourer” description applies)

 

            John Ball                     22        Male               Labourer

            Eliza Ball                     21        Female            Labourer

            Mary Ball                    22        Female            Labourer

            Daniel Ball                  25        Male                Labourer

            George Ball                 infant   Male                5 months old

            Thomas Noble             24        Male               Labourer

            Sarah Noble                24        Female           

            Phoebe Noble              2          Female

As we have seen, Sarah Ball had married Thomas Nobles (13thJune 1849) so here we have the siblings and their spouses together in the port of New York. There is only one problem. Who is Eliza Ball, aged 21? Unfortunately the list does not include the marital status so we do not know if Eliza is a wife or a relation. We know that Daniel’s wife was Mary, born in Warmington, from the 1851 English Census but we can find no sign of a marriage for John. He had a sister, Elizabeth, who was baptised in 1820, so she would have been some ten years older and we also believe that she is the Elizabeth Ball who was buried on 15thDecember 1840 aged 20. The Register does not give parents but she does seem to be the only Elizabeth Ball of this age in the parish. There is an Eliza Ball, daughter of Edward Ball, born and living in Denford in 1851. She may be a cousin, although we have not proved this. Could she have gone with the Balls and Nobles? We must look to America, to see if it provides any answers

As Eliza is an enigma at the moment we will look at the three siblings first, to see if we can find their progress in their new land. So far, their movements in those first eight years, has not been established. Had they made plans before they left? Did they stay together at first until they could decide what to do?

We first find Daniel and Mary in the 1860 Federal Census living in Schroeppel, Oswego, New York State. Mary is 30 which is what we would expect but Daniel is 43 which is some ten years too old. With them is George, now 8, and shown, like his parents, as born in England. There are now two further children, Mary, 6, and James, 4, both born in New York State. Daniel is a described as a farmer

The 1870 Census confirms our suspicion that the 1860 Census gives the wrong age, because he is now 44. Mary is 44 too, which is also the age we would be expect from the 1851 English Census. George is 19 and his occupation is now “Farming”, Mary is 17, with no occupation shown but James 13 and also in farming. There are also Clara 7 and William 5 who are both at school. The family are living in the town of Palermo in the county of Oswego.

It seems that Daniel and Mary had found their home. In 1880 he is still farming in Palermo and all their children are still at home. George is at home in farming and his yunger brother James is a labourer. Mary is a servant and the two youngest children Clara and William aged 16 and 13 are still at school. There is only one obvious cloud in that beside George, now aged 27 is the word "Insane". It may be that he had learning difficulties but we cannot be sure.

The 1890 USA Federal Census is largely lost, burnt in a fire, but in1900 Daniel and Mary. both 73 years old, are still in Palermo Township. He is still a farmer and William, now 31, is a labourer and living at home. It records that Daniel cannot read or write but both Mary and William can. Daniel also has not naturalised but as the couple come up to their golden wedding anniversary it seems that the family is now American.  

 

*

Let us now look at Daniel’s brother, John. It seems certain, because of the evidence of his age and companions that John Ball did go to New York with his siblings. After his arrival the position is a little less certain than with Daniel and, at present, we have a lot of detailed fragments and like shards dug up from the past they could turn out to be from different pots. Gradually, however, the shape of a single human being seems to be emerging.

We will start with his early life. We first saw John at his baptism in Ringstead in 1830 when he was ten months old. The other details of the date of the christening are omitted. By the 1841 Census he is aged 12 and living with his parents and siblings, a few doors from the Vicarage, before the great dispersal of the family begins. He, like his older brother has followed his father as a shepherd. At first, Enclosure along the Nene valley had the effect of creating more pastoral land but sheep farming was not so labour intensive as arable in that time, still, mainly dependent on horsepower and limited but increasing mechanisation.

By 1851 he is aged 21 and an “Under Gardener”. His older brother, Daniel, is married but he and his new wife are still living with the family. Only James has left to seek his living I believe - by a process of elimination - that he is wrongly put as John Ball, aged 19, born in Ringstead, a shepherd at Wold Lodges in Tansor which is downstream on the Nene, on the other side of Oundle. James moves first to Titchmarsh and then back to Ringstead by 1871.

John, on the other hand seems to disappear from all the censuses. There is no sign of a burial either.

In desperation I began to scan the websites for news, however belated. Finally I came on a site, which has since disappeared which had digitised a book called, A memorial and biographical history of the counties of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura, California. It was published in1891 and in it I found the following short passage. 

 

JOHN BALL, whose fine ranch borders the Santa Ynez River, was born in Northamptonshire, England in 1831

His father, Daniel Ball, was a farmer, and subject lived at home until 1850, when he came to the United States and first settled at Lockport, New York, where for three years he was servant in a hotel. Then, in 1853, he went to Oswego County and farmed up to 1856, when he came to California, by way of Panama.

 

He then went to the mines in Nevada County and mined for three years with good success, but on account of failing health he was obliged to leave; so went to Monterey County where he rented from 200 to 400 acres and raised grain for sixteen years. In 1876 he came to Lompoc, and bought eighty acres of land, paying $35 per acre. The land was covered with brush and timber, but is now cleared and highly improved. He carried on general farming up to 1885, but since then has been an extensive breeder of hogs, of the Poland-China, Essex and Berkshire breeds, keeping about 150 head and fattening for market. He is about reducing his stock, to return to the cultivation of beans and mustard, and thus change his farming. Mr. Ball was married at Castorville {sic?}, Monterey County, in 1863, to Miss Elizabeth Staley, a native of Missouri. They have but one child living, Charles Ball, who was born July 6 1869, and he still lives at home. They lost their two daughters in 1879, with diphtheria, dying within four days of each other.

On the balance of evidence it seems this is our John. The date of birth is a couple of years wrong and he emigrated not in 1850 but in 1852 as we have seen. On the other hand, his father was Daniel Ball from Northamptonshire. It says Daniel was a farmer but that is an understandable upgrade. We cannot be certain, but looking at the lives at some of his siblings, it does seem very possible

His brother, Daniel was in Oswego County as a farmer, where John’s biography says he also farmed. It looks as if the two brothers were together at the start but either they fell out or John decided to try his luck in California. In the biography it also states that he had been mining in Nevada County, California. It seems likely that he went to seek his fortune in the gold mines that were in the county. At this time, the use of water to separate and find the gold had begun, with devastating effects, as this extract from a University of California website makes clear:

 

The Gold Rush, positive for California in so many ways, had a devastating effect on the state’s environment. Many of these problems were directly related to gold-mining technology. The process of hydraulic mining which became popular in the 1850’s caused irreparable environmental destruction….. California’s largest hydraulic mine {was} Malakoff Diggings in Nevada County.

 

Dams (such as the English Dam in Nevada County) . . . which were constructed to help supply water to the mines during the dry summer months, changed the course of rivers. The sediment washed away by hydraulic mining clogged river-beds and lakes, threatening agriculture throughout the Central Valley. Conflicts arose between mining and farming interests. Hydraulic mining essentially came to an end in 1884. . .

 

Checking the American censuses, I have not yet found John  in 1860 but, according to the biography he married Elizabeth Staley in Castroville in 1863 and, in 1868, in Monterey County, he became a naturalized United States citizen. In 1870, we find the family in Castroville Township, in the county of Monterey. There is Elizabeth aged 39, with the children, Mary 6, Narcissa 4 and Charles 1. John is away but all around are farmers and farm labourers. It states that Elizabeth was born in Kentucky but this is possible, although it does introduce some uncertainty. There is also the possibility that this Elizabeth is John's second wife although, as yet, we have no evidence except his late marriage and the enigma of the Eliza Ball who was on the Jacob A. Westervelt with him.

We know, from the biography, that John moved to Lompoc in 1876. It seems that Lompoc was only founded in 1874 when the Lompoc Land Company bought and sold 43,000 acres to establish a temperance colony. The Lompoc History site reports that:

A land rush ensued with fierce bidding forcing land prices to skyrocket in just one day. The temperance colony flourished, despite being located on the stage line midway between the "wicked" cities of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. Liquor inevitably found its way into the town via passing stagecoaches. Local druggists were also known to stock alcohol "for medicinal purposes". The city of Lompoc was incorporated on August 13th 1888. At that time the courts ruled that the temperance clause included in all deeds to that time was unenforceable, since there was no reversion clause. The lands could not revert to the Lompoc Valley Land Colony, since it was disbanded years earlier. Temperance, therefore, ended with the incorporation of the City

The biography tells us that in 1876 he bought land near the Santa Ynez River which he cleared and farmed there. The farm was on the river edge, west of Lompoc, and had a river crossing which is still called Ball's Crossing. By good fortune Armilda Carter Douglass also moved to Lompoc in 1876 and she has left her memories of that time. She tells of the droughts when, "During that winter {1876-7}not enough rain fell at any one time to lay the dust". and the floods that meant the early farmers lived, in those early years, on the edge of starvation. She also tells of the farmers' inexperience that caused them great hardship:

When first beans were planted in the valley, no one knew just how ripe pods had to be before they should be picked. Consequently, the farmers waited until the pods were so dry that the beans would pop out if any effort to pick them was made during the day time. In order to gather the crop, pickers waited until night fogs moistened the pods and crawled down the furrows on their hands and knees in the dark picking beans all night long.

She also tells, however, of people helping each other in times of trouble and sharing surpluses during those early times of famine.

In 1879 we know, from the biography, that John and Elizabeth's two girls died of diphtheria, which was during an epidemic which took the lives of other Lompoc children, and in the 1880 Census, Charley aged 10 is now on his own. We find him with his parents in Santa Barbara County, California. Elizabeth is 49 and born in Kentucky and John, now returned, is aged 50 and is a farmer. The Census was taken on 4th June 1880 so John must have been born between June 5th1829 and June 4th 1830. This would mean that his birth comes within the time span we would expect from his baptism in Ringstead rather than the one quoted in the book. It is a small point but it does show that many dates in family histories are not facts but best guesses.

 

Lompoc 4th July 1909 West Ocean

with kind permission od Lompoc Historical Society

There is at least one further twist in the story of John Ball. Myra Manfrina has informed me, from the Lompoc Local History resources, that Elizabeth divorced John in 1892 and took back her maiden name. On September 28th 1895 the Santa Maria Times of Santa Barbara reported

MARRIED Mr John Ball of Lompoc and Mrs. Della Gale of Santa Maria, September  25th 1895 at the residence of Rev. Jas. M. Smith

The Santa Barbara County marriage register 1887-1897 has been transcribed and digitised and it shows that John was 64, which is about the age that we would expect, and Della 49

In the 1900 Census a John Ball, aged 70, born in England in March 1830 is a widower and living by himself in Township 3, Santa Barbara, California. His marriage to Della was not a long one. The Census also records that he he had come to the USA in 1850 and was now a teamster. His son Charles married Alice Brookshire in about 1890 and they had two sons and brought up their family in the Santa Barbara area. Elizabeth is buried in the same plot as her two daughters.

John died on March 9th 1905 and the Morning Press newspaper on the following day was a brief statement:

OLD RESIDENT DEAD 

John Ball, an old resident of this county passed away yesterday afternoon at the county hospital at the age of 75 years. He was a native of England but had lived in this locality for many years. He has been confined in the hospital for two years, the cause of his death being the natural decline of old age. He leaves a widow in Lompoc and a son in Santa Maria.

I think that the assertion of a widow may be an error and may refer to Elizabeth  Two John Balls half a world apart who between them have crossed the Atlantic and then sailed around the USA through the Panama Canal to California. They have married and had the tragedy of the death of their two girls. It seems almost certain, with the evidence of the crossing with his brother and sister, the stated coming form Oswego County in New York State and his father being a Daniel Ball from Northamptonshire, that the two are in fact the same person.

*

Let us finally look at Sarah and her husband Thomas Nobles (or Noble). In 1860 Sara aged 39, the age that we would expect from the 1851 Ringstead Census, was living in Lysander in Onondaga County in New York State. Thomas (34) is a Farmer and Phebe (13) has two siblings, William (6) and Elizabeth (6). By 1870 they are living in Avon, Livingston, in New York State. Thomas is still a farmer, Sarah is “keeping house” and the two younger children, William T (14) and Elizabeth (13) are still at home, both born in New York State.

In 1880 they are at Henrietta, in the county of Monroe, still in New York State and Thomas is 53 and Sarah 58. William, their son, is 24 and a farmer, presumably with his father and Elizabeth is a dressmaker. Sarah is still keeping house. We next see Sarah aged 74, now a widow, living with William, and his wife and children, in Rush also in Monroe county. William, like his father, is a farmer and his son Elwin is a “farm labourer”. Perhaps surprisingly, considering the hard life that she must have had that is not our last sighting of her in the Federal Censuses. In 1910, aged 87, she is living with her eldest daughter Phoebe (60) and her husband Mathew Flowerday apparently some ten years her senior(although only 6 years older in earlier censuses), in Brighton, Monroe County, New York State. None of them are working and let us hope that they were able to live comfortably in the land they had played a small part in making. Matthew and Phebe have been married 40 years but have had no children

 

*

 

We cannot be completely certain, but it appears that the three siblings, Daniel, John and Sarah all stayed in the United States and made their lives there in farming. Their younger brother, Elisha, who came a decade later, went first to Elmira in New York State and then on to Canada. For some reason, he and his family returned to Ringstead. Perhaps, as we have speculated in his biography, he came too late to get the land and the life that he wanted.

There is another important fact that we have so far not mentioned. The American Civil War raged from 12th April 1861 to April 1865. The War claimed some 620,000 lives, which is more than the combined American dead from all other wars between 1775 and 1975. New York State was not in the area of conflict between the Union and Confederate forces but volunteers were recruited from the area and many died in the vicious battles that characterised the war. As the History of Oswego County, written in 1877, states:

No portion of the Empire State exhibited more patriotism or responded with greater alacrity to the president’s call for volunteers than the county of Oswego.

Many families in the area, as also in California, where John and his family were living, would have lost sons. The same book also reports on the boom years after the war and the great financial crisis which began in the autumn of 1873, and from which America was just emerging in 1877.

We cannot be sure how all this affected the Ringstead emigrants but certainly it would have been difficult times and any success in the New World would have been hard won. one wonders how their children and grandchildren fared but that is another story in another country and in another century. We must leave it there.

 

 

References

 

1841, 1851 and 1861 Censuses for England

 

1870, 1880 1890 & 1900 1910 United States Federal Censuses

 

Passage to the New World: Packet Ships and Irish Famine Emigrants 1845 – 1851. David Hollett (P.M. Heaton Publishing 1995)

 

http://www.archive.org/details/memorialbiograph00storA memorial and biographical history of the counties of Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura, California (page 609)

 

http://www.archive.org. History of Oswego County New York (L. H. Everts & Co. 1877)

 

New York Passenger Lists, 1820 – 1957 (Ancestry.co.uk)

 

http://searches2.rootsweb.com/th/read/The Ships List/2004-08/1093459813  Jacob A. Westervelt

 

http://www.calisphere.univerisityofcalifornia.edu/themed_collections/subtopic1d/html

 

http://www.nha.org/history/hn/HN-1950-sankaty.htm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1860/04/12news   Fire Upon a Packet Ship

http://theshiplist.com/accounts/packets.htm New York Daily Times Dec 13 1891

http://www.spartacus.schollnet.co.uk/USAEfire.htm

 

http://www.immigrantships.net/v7/jacobwestervelt18510212.html

http://www.cagenweb.com/archives/Obituaries/SantaBarbara/SantaBarbaraNewspapers1895_1896.htm

http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~doug208/Family.html

http://www.lompochistory.org/LompocHistory.html

http://www.cagenweb.com  Santa Barbara Marriages 1887 - 1897 (Transcribed by Linda Diane Jackson)

My special thanks to Myra Manfrina who provided me with a raft of information on John Ball in the Lompoc area and to Helen Rydell in Santa Barbara who found details of his death.