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Friday
Feb172017

Henry Raymond (1606- 1666) ONE OF THE WORTHIES

Although I had told myself that I have finished my Ringstead life stories I came across Henry again and had to write a little about him. This is a first rough draft and more research is needed. I wondered if anyone who knows about the Ekins, Raymonds ot Tuttles might be able to add to, or correct what I have done so far. Please contact me at david@warboys.com.

 

Henry Raymond (1606 – 1666)

Henry Raymond was a minister at Ringstead during some of the most turbulent periods of British history. The turmoil had started in the time of Henry VIII, when the Church of England had broken away from the Roman Catholic Church because of the Pope’s refusal to allow the divorce of Catherine by Henry. Underlying this, however, was not only Henry's need for a son to succeed him but also the increasing belief of the Tudor monarchs that the Pope was an outside political power and that the crown should be the ultimate authority in England. As we have seen in the world over the last sixty years, once you remove an overarching authority from an area it tends to break up into bitter disputes between rival interpretations of religion and nationhood.

With each new monarch the imposed religious practices changed and at a local level the services and the interiors of the parish churches would also change. The Church of England had become part of the bureaucracy of state from 1537 when each parish had to keep, by law, Registers of Christenings, Weddings and Burials.

During the seventeenth century religious divisions widened leading in part to the English Civil War, the Commonwealth, the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell and then the Restoration of Charles II (which was not the end of the religious seesawing in the seventeenth century).

Henry Raymond was a minister in Ringstead during this period of religious and civil turmoil.

He was born in 1606 (from his age at marriage), the oldest son of Francis Raymond of Dunmow in Essex and his first wife. In 1604 Francis had married Mary, daughter of Raffe Eve, of Maldon in Essex. They had three other children, John, Mary and Francis. After the death of Mary, Francies married Elizabeth Spilman and there were four further children, Hanna, Martha, Abigale and Francis.

In Easter 1623 Henry matriculated at, (became a member of), Emmanuel College Cambridge as a “pensioner” or “commoner” which meant that he had not gained a scholarship and so had to pay for his tuition and “commons” (board and lodging). At this time, with few exceptions students of Oxford and Cambridge had to be members of the Church of England and of the gentry. He gained his B.A in 1626-7 and his M.A. in 1630. Both awards were often largely a matter of payment and time rather than of any learning and examination.

Between these two degrees he had been ordained as a deacon at Upton Chapel near Castor by Thomas Dove, Rector of Castor and Bishop of Peterborough, on September 3rd 1628 and a day later as a priest. The Doves owned most of the land in the Castor area before it was sold to the Fitzwilliams in the eighteenth century. Thomas Dove, who died in 1630, was a noted preacher who had greatly impressed Elizabeth I. He was, however, very much on the High Anglican side of the widening divide.

Henry became a curate at Ringstead in 1630 (or some sources state that it was possibly 1628, although the Ringstead Registers do not bear this out) and he was described as a "Clerk from Ringstead" on his marriage licence of May of that year. The vicar  of the joint parish of Denford with Ringstead from 1617 to 1638 was James Southwell.

Charles I, who had come to the throne in 1625, began to oversee the reordering of the church again emphasising ritual rather than preaching. We cannot be sure how far each round of changes reached Ringstead but many churches prior to this had had a communion table lengthwise in the chancel with the seating around it on three sides. Charles, through Archbishop Laud particularly, had it moved back to under the East window as an altar and rails, communion wine, surplices etc were reintroduced. The interiors of parish churches became more like they had been before the Reformation, and to High Anglican churches today. In the Peterborough diocese these changes were rigorously enforced so it appears likely that the Ringstead Church would have undergone these changes. We get some sense that there was local resistance to this from an order given in 1631 to Ringstead Church to repair the chancel screen (which separated the clergy from the laity) and presumably Henry Raymond was involved in the reply that the position of the pulpit had caused "inconveniences", (i.e made this difficult to carry out).

James I had issued a Declaration of Sports which had set down sports which were permitted on Sundays and holy days and those that were not. Those allowed included: archery, dancing, “leaping, vaulting, or any such harmless recreation” together with “May-games, Whitsun-ales and Morris-dances and the setting up of May-poles”. Recreations that were not permitted included bear and bull baiting, “interludes”, [short, sometimes political, plays put on by strolling players], and bowling. On 18th October 1633 this Declaration was reissued by Charles with the addition of “wakes and ales” (countryside sports) to the list of prohibited sports. Although he denied it, the new Book of Sports was attributed to Archbishop Laud. Any parish priest who refused to read this declaration was to be deprived of his position.

The puritans who wanted to emphasise the keeping of Sunday "holy" led a Sabbatarian movement against this Declaration. Edmund Calamy, writing in the eighteenth century, stated that Henry Raymond was “an able Preacher and bold as a Lion” and Robert Woodford in his diary wrote that Henry Raymond “was a puritan divine who read a lecture at Ringstead sponsored by patrons from London in which he condemned the Laudian Book of Sports”. I am not sure when this lecture was read as obviously this has relevance to the bravery of his action but it was probably in the 1630s. Nevertheless, despite protesting, Henry "conformed" at this point.

Henry Raymond, "Clerk of Ringstead, Northamptonshire", had married Susanna Eakins of Gumbley (Gumley near Foxton 5 mile north-west of Market Harborough) at Gumbley or Langton (may be Laughton which very close to Gumley) in Leicestershire. In the Marriage Licence transcription on FindMypast it states that Henry was 24, so born about 1606, and Susanna was 20, so born about 1610. This seems to contradict the usual age of seventy given for his age at death. If the marriage licence transcription is correct it was nearer to sixty.

Although at her wedding Susanna Ekins was said to be of “Gumbley” she was the “Susan daughter of Henrie Ekins”  amd his wife Susan (nee Keyworth) christened at Ringstead on 12th February 1609. Henry was the son of Robert Ekins of Chelveston and Isabel, daughter of Alexander Travell of Weston Favell. His  brother, Alexander Ekins, of Chelveston seems to have been the main heir.  The main country seat of the Ekins family was at Weston Favell, near Northampton (possibly through the Travells) with three generation of Alexander Ekins being the heads of the families in succession in the early 17th Century. [Looking at the family tree in The Visitations of Essex .Vol.13 I think there was a brief interlude  from about 1638 to1642 when Robert Ekins was the head.] .

Henry and Susan Ekins had three other daughters, Elizabeth, Elinor and Isabell. Ellinor had married John French of Gumley and it seems most likely that Susanna was staying with her sister and brother-in-law at the time of her wedding. It still may seem a little odd to have been married away from both of the couple's homes but perhaps the birth of a child quite soon after the marriage could have been another factor. The first child of Henry, now the Ringstead curate, and Susanna was christened “Marie” at Ringstead on January 25th 1630 which confusingly was some seven months after their marriage in May 1630, as the old calendar ran from March to March.

There followed regular entries into the Ringstead Baptismal Register of christenings for the couple. I have included a couple of christenings of the children of Henry and Susanna Hayman although you would think that the children of the curate would have the correct surname written in the Register. We must remember, however,that this was the age before dictionaries and if you look at the original Registers the sprawling writing is difficult to transcribe accurately. Henry James (29/09/1633); Susan Rayman (26/12/1636); Francis Hayman (06/01/1637);Thomas (16/09/1639); Rebecka Ramone “daughter of Henry” (1641); Hanna Raymond (03/10/1643); John Raymond is recorded as born at Weston [Favell?] at the end of April 1645 and buried there ** months later; Marie again (26//09/1647); John (06/10/1647); Elizabeth (06/10/1648); Elizabeth again (04/05/1651 ) Finally there is another Hannah but no details are given (appears after 1651). There is a gap in the Ringstead Burial Register from March 8th 1639 to February 24th 1665 so we cannot check for infant deaths. The Puritan “Commonwealth” was from 1649 to 1660 and before this there was a tendency for parishes to lean towards Puritan or Catholic beliefs and it seems that Ringstead would have been in the former camp with Henry as the minister. It may be, therefore, that the two later entries are for adult baptisms.

Henry's father died in 1640 and in his Will of the previous year Francis, a linen draper had made his second wife, Elizabeth, and Henry his executors. Henry does not appear to have a bequest and his father has divided his fortune eqyually among his younger children. Perhaps Henry had already been well provided for.

Henry became vicar of the joint parish of Denford with Ringstead in 1647 which Edward Calamy states was worth some 40 to 50 pounds a year. It is a little confused because the Denford  Church booklet has Henry "intruded" in 1647 but then Arthur Leonard intruded in Denford in1648. The previous Vicar or Rector, James Southwell had signed the Register on a reular basis but there is no sign of Henry's signature and the Registers are signed by the churchwardens. On one page there are some scribbles and "Hannah Raymond" and "John Raymond" written in large letters. Was this one of the churchwardens practising or two of Henry's children writing their own names?

We must remember that the English Civil War had started in 1642 and 1647 was a bried pause before a short second conflict which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. It also appears that Henry was always known as being "of Ringstead" so whether for a time the vicar was based at Ringstead and a curate at Denford is unclear. Whatever the truth, it seems that Henry was preaching in Ringstead during this period

In Robert Woodford’s diary he records that “Alexander Eakins of Weston Favell, whose servants were accused of brawling in the belfry of St. Peter’s Church in Northampton in 1634” died in Ringstead in 1666 where his family owned property”. He left money to his kinsman, Henry Raymond, a puritan divine. If this date is correct the bequest did not do Henry much good as, it appears, that he also died in the same year. His wife Susanna and his children may have benefitted.

Henry would have been a lesser member of the landed gentry and Susanna also had strong connections to the landowning class. The Hearth Tax return for Ringstead taken on 30th September 1662 records that Henry Raymond had a house with three hearths (Mr Ekins had 6 and Alexander Ekins 4); After Henry’s death, in 1670 his widow still had three hearths (so presumably in the same house), the widow of Alexander Ekins had four and Mr Ekins six.

Of course between these Hearth Tax returns much had changed. In 1660 Charles II had returned to England in what is usually termed the Restoration. Much of the old church practices and ritual were again reinstated and in 1662 a slightly revised Book of Common Prayer was issued. Every incumbent of church office had to take an oath of loyalty both to the new Prayer Book and to the monarchy. Two thousand ministers refused and were ejected from their livings. In 1665 the Five Mile Act forbade the ejected clergy to come within five miles of the place where they had held a living. It may be that Henry died before this rule was enforced.

On November 21st 1665 Henry made his Will (Archdeaconry Court of Northampton 4th Series Book 8, page 100 microform 70). It was proved on October 15th 1666 so Henry had died between these two dates. Had he had to leave his parish for a short time before his death? His burial does not appear in the Ringstead Burial Register but during the chaos of this period much of the recording was not carried out and there are only three burials listed in the Register between 1665 and 1668. Surely some must have gone unrecorded.

The Will detailed his various bequests with his wife Susanna as his executrix:

To wife Susanna house and homestead with all land &c., in Ringstead, and all goods remaining after wife's decease to son Henry and his heirs; to son Francis 40/= [£2]; son Thomas £10; dau. Susanna Raymond house, &c., bought of Rich. Lileman, paying to her brother Henry's children £10 a child at 21, that is to say, to his son Joseph, his dau. Mary, his dau. Susanna £10 each. To daughter Susanna R. my silver tankard; 2nd dau. Rebecca R. £80; dau. Hanna £80; dau Mary land in Ringstead bought of Anthony Aborne; dau. Elizabeth R. that little close I bought of Robert Gilbert in R.[Ringstead] and £50. To son Francis's son£10; my 4 youngest daus. a silver spoon each; to dau. Raymond wife of Henry 10/=; cosen Samuel Ekins and his wife Mr.Hildersham's book upon the 4th of St. John and the 51 Psalme; Poor of R. [Ringstead] 20/= [£1]; wife Susanna exec.

Inventory taken 29th April 1666, £220 4s. 6d. including his library £14 0s 0d.

The Inventory itself does fill in a little detail of the house and the way he lived. It does not include the houses and lands:

£ d

  His wearing apparrell   06 13 04

His Library 14 00 00

All the goods in the Hall 01 10 00

All the goods in the Parlour 04 10 00

The goods in the kitchen of Pewter & Brass 04 02 04

The goods in the Milk House 01 03 06

The goods in the Buttery 00 10 06

The goods in the two Chambers over the hall 04 06 08

The goods in the Parlour Chamber with the Linnin 04 15 04

The grain and the goods in the kitchen and milk house chamber 02 05 06

The Cowes 06 10 06

The grain in the field 08 04 06

The hoggs, pullen [chickens?] Mannard [Mallard ducks?] in the yard 01 12 04

The debts 160 00 00

£ s d

  Total      220 04 06

Henry had had a licence for a "birden piece" so we see that he would have probably enjoyed the shooting and fishing as many country gentlemen of the time. Of course, he may just have used it against the crows and pigeons eating his corn.

Nevertheless he was not like the "Vicar of Bray" in the later satirical song who changed his beliefs with every new monarch so he could keep his position. He made a stand and was one of the two thousand “Worthies” as they became known. It seems that after his ejectment he never preached again. The local church was now irrevocably split and the Baptists of Ringstead and Raunds trekked each Sunday to Rowell (Rothwell) and back to hear another ejected priest from Desborough preach. In 1714 the Ringstead Baptist Church was established.

Meanwhile we know that two of Henry’s sons, Henry and Thomas, had gone into the ministry and both “conformed” and stayed within the Church of England. Interestingly both are shown as being educated at Ringstead. Was there a private school at Ringstead at this date or were they educated at home, perhaps by Henry himself or by a tutor? According to the Clergy of the Church of England Database, on 28th July 1713, the Bishop of Peterborough appointed a schoolmaster called John Allison to Ringstead but I have not found any any previous appointments.

The eldest son, Henry was first at Little Oakley but spent most of his career as Rector of Warkton, where he was buried. The third son, Thomas, spent the majority of his working life as Rector of Hardwick in Northamptonshire. It was at Hardwick, in 1668, that Susanna Raymond of Ringstead married Abraham Syannon [Sparrow?] of Kettering. is this Henry's widow or, most likely, his daughter? The following year Abraham Green of Moulton married Mary Raymond. Abraham is recorded as being a husbandsman "of Warkton, parish of brother Henry but the wedding was again at Hardwick.

Postscript

The Tuttle (various spellings) family of Ringstead are known as one of the early families who migrated to America. Originally they came from Woodford and in 1605 Simon Tuttle was living in Ringstead and we see in the Ringstead Baptismal Register the christenings of the children of the sons of Simon, John and Richard, from 1623 to 1634. It seems certain that Henry Raymond, curate at Ringstead from 1630, officiated at the later ones of these.

John Tuttle had been set up in the mercery business (which included linens, silks etc.) in St Albans by his father and in the 1639 Will of Francis Raymond of Danbury, father of Henry, he was described as a "Linen Draper". Was this just coincidence? In 1634 Thomas, the son of William Tuttle was christened in Ringstead. Soon after that, William and his family, together with his widowed mother Isobel, joined his brother John in St Albans and, in 1635, aboard The Planter they sailed for New Haven. They were not  a family escaping poverty so perhaps it was their religion that played an important part in their decision to take the dangerous voyage to this puritan settlement. Did the preaching of Henry have anything to do with this? Certainly one wonders if Richard and Anne Tuttle had talked about their plans with Henry. It seems very probable.

There also seems some evidence that Richard Raymond and others of Henry’s extended family from Dunmow also emigrated in the seventeenth century but this needs much more investigation.

References

Ringstead Registers (Rushden Heritage website). hardwichk Parish Register (Ancestry.co.uk)

 A Continuation of the Account of the Ministers, Lecturers, Masters and Fellows of Colleges and Schoolmasters who were Ejected or Silenced after the Restoration in 1660 (1729). Edmund Calamy

The Diary of Robert Woodford 1637 – 1641 (note p.127) [googlebooks].

Marriage licences 1570 – 1729 on Ancestry.co.uk

The Church of the Holy Trinity, Denford Church Guide by Stephen Swales 1990 updated 2003: Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Ringstead Guide by K.M. Watson 1980.

Cambridge University Alumni 1261 – 1900 (Ancestry.co.uk)

Alumni Cantabrigiensis: A  Biographical List of all Known Students etc Volume 1 Pages 428 – 9  (googlebooks)

Leicestershire Marriage Licences 1604 – 1891 Transcription (FindMyPast.co.uk)

CCEd 

Northamptonshire and Rutland Clegy Vol. 11 (LON 13 Northamptonshire  Record Office)

Raymonds of Ringstead family tree (N R O)

The Visitation of Essex 1634 (N R O)

The Visitation of Northamptonshire: 1618-19 Appendix.  Walter C. Metcalfe 1887 (HER/11 N R O)

Inventory of Will of Henry Raymond April 1666 (N R O )

The Notorious Elizabeth Tuttle. Ava Chamberlain. (NYU Press 2012).

 www.Evetree.co.uk 

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